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2016年成人高考高起點英語復習:形容詞和副詞

By 網友發布 2016年07月02日

 形容詞和副詞在語法結構中主要用于比較級和最高級。形容詞和副詞的構成形式基本上一樣,它們的形式與單音節、雙音節和多音節有關,當然還有其特殊形式。形容詞和副詞比較級的基本用法分為同級比較、比較級和最高級三種形式。但這三種形式都有它們特殊的表達方式以及它們的慣用法。對以下要點大家須一一掌握。

  形容詞比較級和最高級的形式

  一、形容詞比較級和最高級的構成

  形容詞的比較級和最高級變化形式規則如下

  構 成 法 原 級 比 較 級 * 高 級

  ① 一般單音節詞末尾加er 和 est strong stronger strongest

  ② 單音節詞如果以e結尾,只加r 和st strange stranger strangest

  ③ 閉音節單音節詞如末尾只有 一個輔音字母,

  須先雙寫這個輔音字母,再加er和est sad

  big

  hot sadder

  bigger

  hotter saddest

  biggest

  hottest

  ④ 少數以y,er(或ure),ow,ble結尾的雙音節詞,

  末尾加er和est(以y結尾的詞,如y前是輔音字母,

  把y變成i,再加er和est,以e結尾的詞仍

  只加r和st) angry

  clever

  narrow

  noble angrier

  cleverer

  narrower

  nobler angrest

  cleverest

  narrowest

  noblest

  ⑤ 其他雙音節和多音節詞都在前面加單詞more和most different more

  different most

  different

  二、形容詞比較級或最高級的特殊形式:

  1. 三個或三個以上音節的形容詞只能加more和most

  只能說 more beautiful而不能說beautifuller; 只能說the most beautiful而不能說beautifullest.

  但是,以形容前綴un結尾的三音節形容詞不適合上述情況,如unhappy,untidy,我們可以說:unhappier→unhappiest, untidier→untidiest

  2. 由ING分詞和ED分詞演變過來的形容詞(包括不規則動詞如know→known)只能加more或most來表示它們的比較級和最高級

  more(most) striking, more(most) interesting, more(most) wounded, more(most)worn等。

  3. 英語里有些形容詞由于其詞義而不可能有比較級形式

  absolute fatal main right universal

  chief final naked simulta- utter

  entire foremost perfect neous vital

  eternal inevitable possible sufficient whole

  excellent infinite primary supreme wooden

  三、不規則形容詞的比較級和最高級形式

  good

  well better best

  bad

  ill worse worst

  many

  much more most

  little

  few less least

  far farther farthest

  further furthest

  副詞比較級和最高級的形式

  副詞比較級和最高級的變化形式與形容詞基本上一樣

  一般 副詞

  hard→harder →hardest

  fast→faster →fastest

  late→later →latest

  early→earlier →earliest

  特殊 副詞

  well →better →best

  much →more →most

  badly →worse →worst

  little →less →least 但是,開放類副詞即以后綴ly結尾的副詞不能像形容詞那樣加er或est,如

  quickly →more quickly →most quickly quietly →more quietly →most quietly

  [注]: early中的ly不是后綴,故可以把y變i再加er和est

  一、原級比較的基本用法

  1. 原級比較由“as+形容詞或副詞(或再加名詞或短語)+as ”構成“原級相同”比較句,表示兩者比較;其否定式,即“程度不及”比較句型為“not so(as) +形容詞或副詞+as”,而且as…as結構前可用just, almost, nearly, quite等表示程度的詞修飾

  2. “as (so)+名詞+as+名詞”進行名詞比較,這時一般情況下有一個表示原級的比較詞,但如果第*名詞前出現了形容詞修飾該詞或出現副詞修飾謂語,應當用so而不用as

  二、比較級

  1. 比較級由“形容詞(副詞)比較級+than+…,”構成表示在兩者中間一方比另一方“更加…”。連詞than后可接句子,也可接名詞、代詞、名詞短語、介詞短語、動詞、動詞不定式、ING結構和ED結構,有時也可省去than.

  2. 注意than前后兩項相比較的人或事物要一致

  三、最高級

  1. 最高級用于三者以上比較,形容詞的結構形式是“定冠詞+形容詞最高級+名詞+表示范圍的短語或從句”(如all, of all, of the tree, in the world, that has ever taken place等)

  2. 副詞的最高級與形容詞最高級的區別在于最高級前沒有定冠詞the

  四、同步練習

  1) Walking briskly for thirty minutes will burn as many calories as .

  [A] to run for fifteen minutes

  [B] running for fifteen minutes

  [C] you run for fifteen minutes

  [D] fifteenminute walking

  解析:B為正確答案。

  2) The gorilla(大猩猩), while [A] not quite as curious than [B] the chimpanzee(黑猩猩), shows more persistence [C] and memory retention(記憶力) in solving [D] a problem.

  解析:B錯。改為 as ,和前面的as和形容詞原形curious 一起構成同程度比較。

  3) Alaska is twice [A] as larger [B] as [C] the next largest [D] state, Texas.

  解析:B錯。 改為as large.

  4) Thomas Jefferson's achievements as an architect rival his contributions a politician.

  [A] such [B] more [C] as [D] than

  解析:C對。動詞rival(勝過、匹敵)前后是兩個相比較的成分achievements(成果)和 contributions(貢獻),由于前面的名詞后出現了短語 as an architect,故空白處也應用as,使前后對比成分一致。

  5) I should say Henry is not much a writer as a reporter.

  [A] that [B] so [C] this [D] as

  解析:B為正確答案。

  6) Natural mica(云母) of [A] a superior [B] quality is cheapest [C] to obtain than synthetic [D] mica.

  解析:C錯。應改為比較級cheaper.比較級后并不一定跟接連詞than,有時在其間有名詞或名詞短語(被形容詞所修飾),介詞短語,不定式或其他成分隔開。

  7) She is older than .

  [A] any other girl in the group [B] any girl in the group

  [C] all girls in the group [D] you and me as well as the group

  解析:A為正確答案。“She”作為單個不能跟全組比(C和D不對),也不能跟全組所有相比,因為“她”也是其中一員,自然“她”不能跟自己相比。這里“She”比較的是“這組中的任何一個”,所以A對。

  8) Josephine McCrackin joined [A] the “Santa Cruz Sentinel” in 1905 and, until her death fifteen years late [B] , remained [C] active in journalistic [D] work.

  解析:B錯。應改為比較級later,因此處實為與1905年相比晚15年,故應使用比較級。

  9) The purpose of the research had a more important meaning for them than .

  [A] ours [B] with us [C] for ours it had [D] it did for us

  解析:D為正確答案。

  10) Sound travels air.

  [A] faster through water than through [B] faster than through water and

  [C] through water faster and[D] where it is faster through water than through

  解析:A為正確答案。

  11) Gerbrand von den Feckhout, one of Rembrand's pupils, followed [A] the style of his teacher so implicitly that [B] his paintings [C] are sometimes confused with his master [D] .

  解析:D錯。 改為his master's.

  12) The more [A] fearsome of all the [B] animals in [C] the Western [D] Hemisphere is the grizzly bear.

  解析:A錯。 改為most.

  13) Of all economic [A] problems, inflation continues to be [B] a [C] most significant in its daily impact on [D] people and business.

  解析:C錯。改為the, significant是多音節形容詞,在此處應用最高級形式(在前面加 the most),注意句中的“of all… ”。

  14) ,the most familiar to general public is the criminal jurisdiction.

  [A] All the activities [B] The activities

  [C] Of all the activities [D] It is the activities

  解析:C為正確答案。本句空白處缺狀語,A和B全為名詞短語,不符合條件;D為句子,和空白后面的句子沒有任何聯系,故亦應排除。只有C正確,和后面的最高級the most familiar前后呼應。


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